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Ecosystems are the sectors or areas where action is taken by public administrations, from health to agriculture, from school to cultural heritage. The Plan identifies thirteen of them, which are listed in Figure 7 and described Table 1 in the next page.
Each ecosystem identifies a thematic sector with characteristics of homogeneity. It includes public bodies and bodies and may also include private individuals, such as associations that, for various reasons, carry out important functions within the ecosystem. For example, the public finance ecosystem includes public entities such as the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, the Ministry of the Interior, the Revenue Agency, the Regions, the Guardia di Finanza, as well as private entities as accountant, CAF, fiscal practitioners.
In order to facilitate co-ordination between the actors involved, each ecosystem:
- Defines the reference databases, their power rules, and implements the communication mechanisms with the Data & Analytics Framework;
- Contributes to the definition of the specific ecosystem guidelines;
- Defines shared and transparent rules for its operation;
- Uses the enabling platforms;
- Presents its services through APIs.
The application of the rules defined in the Interoperability Model within each ecosystem represents the common language that enables communication between ecosystems.
6.1. The current situation¶
In order to ensure the implementation of the 2014-2020 Digital Growth Strategy, AgID has provided a first definition of ecosystems based on the classification *Missions and Programs*  as indicated in the Law of 28 December 2015, n. 209 (Budget Law 2016).
Based on the above criteria, the ecosystems listed in the following table have been identified, indicating the main administrations involved:
|Ecosystem||Ecosystem Description||Main administrations involved|
|Healthcare||The Healthcare ecosystem has been defined in accordance with the “Health Protection Mission” and the Strategy Paper for Digital Growth 2014-2020, which identifies the “Digital Healthcare” action.||Ministry of Health, MEF, ISS, Regions, Health Care Companies, AgID, Zooprophylactic Institutes, AGENAS, AIFA.|
|Welfare||The Welfare ecosystem includes Missions related to “Social Rights, Social Policies and Family,” Social Security Policies and Labour Policies.”||Ministry of Labour and Social Policies, MEF, MIUR, INPS, INAIL, Regions, Provinces and other territorial entities, ANCI, Municipalities, COVIP.|
|Public finance||The Public Finance ecosystem includes the “Economic and Financial Policies and Budget Policies”, “Financial Relationships with Territorial Autonomy” and “Public Debt” missions and the “Electronic Billing PA” action in the document “Strategy for Digital Growth 2014- 2020.||MEF, Ministry of the Interior, Revenue Agency, Customs Agency and Monopoly Agenzia del Demanio, Equitalia.|
|School||The School ecosystem has been defined in accordance with the “School Education” Mission, the Strategy Paper for Digital Growth 2014-2020 and the MIUR DM in 2015, which initiates the *National Digital School Plan* .||MIUR and Public Schools (Public and Equivalent), Provinces and Other Aggregates of Local Authorities, Municipalities, ANCI.|
|Higher education and research||The Higher Education and Research ecosystem mainly comprises the “University Education and Post-graduate Education” Mission.||MIUR, University System and Higher Institute of Research.|
|Defence, Security and Rescue - Legality||The Defence, Security and Rescue Ecosystem consists mainly of the “Defence and Security of the Territory”, “Public Order and Security”, “Civil Emergency” and “Immigration, Reception and Guarantee of Rights” missions.||Ministry of Defence, Ministry of the Interior, MEF, MIT, MIPAAF|
|Justice||The Justice Ecosystem has been defined in accordance with the Justice Mission and the Strategy Paper for Digital Growth 2014-2020 in which the “Digital Justice” action is identified.||Ministry of Justice, MEF, INAIL State Attorney, TAR, Tribunals, Court of Auditors, State Council, Court of Cassation, CSM.|
|Infrastructure and Logistics - Mobility||The Infrastructure and Logistics ecosystem mainly comprises the missions “Right to Mobility and Transport System Development”, “Public and Logistics Infrastructures” and “Home and Urban Planning” missions.||MIT, MEF, Regions, Provinces and other Aggregations of Local Authorities, Municipalities, ANCI, ACI, ANSF.|
|Development and sustainability||The Ecosystem Development and Sustainability includes primarily the Missions “Energy and Energy diversification,” “Competitiveness and Business Development”, “Market Regulation”, “Sustainable Development and Conservation of the Territory and the Environment”, “Territorial Development and Rebalance”.||MISE, MEF, Ministry of the Environment, MIUR, ENEA, ANPA, ARPA, UnionCamere, Regions, LPA.|
|Cultural heritage and tourism||The Cultural Heritage and Tourism ecosystem has been defined in accordance with the Missions “Protection and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage, Activities and Landscapes” and “Youth and Sports”, as well as the Document for Digital Growth 2014-2020, which identifies the “Digital Tourism” action.||MIBACT, MEF, Regions, Provinces and other Aggregations of Local Authorities, Municipalities, ANCI, ENIT, EPT.|
|Communications||The Communications Ecosystem includes the “Communications” Mission.||MISE, AGCOM, IPZS, MIT, MEF.|
|Agriculture||The Agriculture ecosystem has been defined in accordance with the “Agriculture, agri-food and fisheries policies” mission and the document “Digital Growth Strategy 2014-2020”, which identifies the “Digital Agriculture” action.||MIPAAF, MEF, Regions.|
|Italy in Europe and the World||The ecosystem Italy in Europe and the world includes the Mission “Italy in Europe and the World”.||MAE, MEF, MIT, MISE.|
Table 1 - List of ecosystems
AgID made a first mapping of the major ecosystem projects currently underway or being launched at the Central Public Administrations. This mapping, as detailed in Annex 4, “Synoptic Framework of Central Public Administration Projects”, should be considered as a preliminary analysis in view of the new developments linked to the very definition of the ecosystem proposed by the Strategic Model for the Evolution of the PA Information System.
The results,  for exemplification, observed during the mapping of the CPA projects are given below with respect to the following four ecosystems:
- Ecosystem Health: In this ecosystem, a central role is covered by Electronic Health Booklet (FSE) which is the tool through which the citizen can trace, consult and share their health history. The standard stipulates that the FSE infrastructure manages the set of health and socio-medical digital data and documents generated by clinical events present and past regarding the patient. Other solutions, which are currently being launched, which will make computerized health services available are: Unique Reservation Centre (CUP), the centralized computerized system for unified reservation of services, to facilitate accessibility of assistance and reduction of waiting times; the Telemedicine project to provide services that improve the usability of care, distance diagnosis and medical consultation as well as constant monitoring of vital parameters.
- Ecosystem Public Finance: The main structure of this ecosystem is the BDAP, The Database of Accounting Transactions of Public Administrations, and systems supporting administrative accounting processes such as SICOGE (Integrated Management System for Economic and Financial Accounting) IGRUE (Control and monitoring system) and the SIOPE (Cash flow management).
- Ecosystem Development and Sustainability: In this ecosystem, among other things, actions are being implemented for the implementation of the Agenda for Simplification 2015-2017 and, specifically, the consolidation at national level of the Business services (SUAP, SUE, …), through the implementation of the ways in which entrepreneurs interact with the PA on administrative procedures affecting the economic and production activities and / or the activities of the plants. AgID, thanks to the involvement of stakeholders (Department for Public Services, Regions, LPA, Unioncamere, …), will support the establishment and implementation of the ecosystem.
- Justice Ecosystem: Such ecosystem rotates around (i) the electronic civil process and (ii) the electronic taxation process, being deployed and consolidated, (iii) the electronic Criminal Procedure, evolving also for the components involved in the execution of the sentence, (iv) the electronic administrative process, being activated with the related support systems (such as Multivideoconference) and (v) the constitution, considering the breadth and heterogeneity of the users, of the Access Points, that is, of the technological-organisational structures that provide the authorised entities outside the Justice System the services of connection to the portal of the electronic services.
- Ecosystem Development and Sustainability: A collaboration agreement between the Agency and the Ministry of the Environment and the Protection of the Territory and the Sea (MATTM) is underway for the development of the Environment system with interventions aimed at rationalizing the infrastructures present on the territory and supporting the Strategic projects of the Ministry. Another area of collaboration will be to support the definition of the new system SISTRI “Waste Tracking Control System”, which aims to computerize the entire national waste and urban waste chain for the Campania Region.
- Ecosystem Cultural Heritage and Tourism: A collaboration agreement between the Agency and MiBACT is underway for the implementation of “Interventions for the enhancement and promotion of the tourism sector through the definition of digital strategies”. In particular, specific projects aimed at the free distribution of a single access system to a Wi-Fi network federation will be elaborated made available to citizens and tourists, especially in the major tourist and cultural sites, accessible via SPID.
While confirming that the foregoing example does not provide an exhaustive overview of the evidence emerging from AgID’s reconnaissance (see paragraph 1.3), reference should be made to Annex 4 for the exhaustive list of enumerated initiatives, which as a whole will form the first nucleus of projects to start the ecosystems.
6.2. Strategic objectives¶
- Support a citizen and business oriented vision for each ecosystem, leading to the creation of services that simplify interaction with public administrations, offering individual access points for the user.
- Standardise the approach to the development of public administration services between different ecosystems to promote the uniformity of services offered to the citizen. Such services must be simple to use, based on security and based on data and application interoperability (see chap.2).
- Stimulate interoperability - with an API-based model (see chap. 5) - between public administration systems as a necessary condition to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of public services and administrative procedures involving more administrations (e.g. the electronics Services Conference).
- Capitalize on the experiences gained by individual Public administrations through the enhancement of best practice.
6.3. Lines of action¶
For each ecosystem AgID, in accordance with the priorities set out in the 2014-2020 Digital Growth Strategy, recommends the establishment of an Ecosystem Working Group (hereinafter referred to as GdL), which deals with the management and technological development of the ecosystem itself, defining the operational processes to be digitized and the technological requirements that characterize the ecosystem itself. The GdL will be responsible for:
- Defining the actions to be implemented for the implementation of the ecosystem and their priorities (roadmap), also in compliance with regulatory constraints;
- Identifying and interacting with, where necessary, administrations that may vary and influence the regulatory framework for the ecosystem;
- Defining the Business Plan by identifying projects that are beneficial to the development of the ecosystem;
- Ensuring the dissemination of technological issues related to the ecosystem through the involvement of all stakeholders;
- Verifying the overall consistency with the three-year Plan and in particular the principles of interoperability, APIs, security, use of licensing platforms, design lines and software development as outlined in Chapter 2 “Strategic Model for the Evolution of the Public Administration Information System”;
- Involving civil society and stakeholders in defining the development of the ecosystem.
From a more technical point of view, the GdL will ensure the implementation of the necessary actions to:
- Identify, draft, and publish, as defined in the Interoperability Model, technical standards and technical specifications for applications such as standard interfaces for specific industry APIs, specific glossaries, interoperability profiles and best practice;
- Identify or define the data model in accordance with what is already in section 4.1 “Public Administration Data”;
- Stimulate and monitor the use of Enabling Platforms.
|Subject||Ecosystem Working Groups|
|Time Frames||From May 2017|
For each ecosystem, the GdL follows the operational activities by identifying the specific objectives of the ecosystem itself, project planning and the establishment of technical discussion sites.
AgID can, upon request, support the activities of the ecosystem, particularly with regard to the finalization of GdL activities.
The model for management and technological development for the above-mentioned ecosystems has found a first application in the Health Ecosystem. In particular, the implementation, still ongoing, of the Electronic Sanitary Paper is summarized in the following line of action.
|Subject||Evolution of the Electronic Healthcare Scheme (FSE)|
|Time Frames||In progress|
|Players||Ministry of Health, MEF, AgID, Regions and Asl|
The Ministry of Health, in agreement with the MEF and AgID, has developed the infrastructure adaptation project to the provisions of DPCM 178/2015.
The ministerial decree and interoperability rules governing the operation of the system are published by June 2017.
Regional administrations will have to implement their regional electronic healthcare systems, interoperable with the national infrastructure, according to the plans presented and in any case by 2018.
Administrations that by June 2017 will not complete the adoption of autonomous systems will have to adopt, according to the subsidiarity principle, the solutions made available by the MEF.
The Regions are responsible for completing the dissemination of the electronic health record on their territory to all their patients.
Ministerial Decree defining the rules of interoperability * (Release date: June 2017)*
Implementation of Regional FSE Systems
(Release date: by December 2018)
|||For details on the individual projects mentioned here, please refer to Annex 4 “Synoptic Framework of Central Public Administration Projects”|