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This document was translated by a machine.

We want to make our country more efficient. We believe humans and machines should complement each other. Artificial Intelligence is the technology that will enable such symbiosis. This document has been translated using a mix of state-of-the-art machine translation and human-driven AI. The raw machine translation output has been edited by an automated system trained on millions of professionally corrected sentences. Finally, a human went through the document to make sure that no information had been lost.

This means leaving behind some stylistic improvements and potential errors. However, this AI-augmented approach to translation allowed us to prepare this English version at a fraction of the cost and time of the legacy translation process (this translation was made in a few days including the human review; we didn’t publish it right away because we had to convert it to reStructuredText in order to share it on GitHub and we had a ton of things to do before that!).

If you want to contribute with feedback and changes to the Three Year Plan for ICT in the Public Administration, visit the Github repository.

We remind you that only the Italian version approved every year by the Italian Government has legal value.

Appendix B - Glossary

Administration or Public Administration Entity referred to in Article 2, paragraph 2 of the CAD.
Administration owner Administration owner of a project or activity.
Register of agricultural companies A database of national interest composed of all public and private entities, identified by the Tax Code (CUAA, Unique Farm Code), engaged in agricultural, agri-food, forestry and fishing activities, which have any administrative and/or financial relationships with the central or regional public administration.
National Assistance Register (ANA) A database of national interest implemented by the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, in agreement with the Ministry of Health in relation to the specific needs of monitoring the essential levels of assistance, dependent on the records and the lists of beneficiaries held by individual local health units. The electronic health checklist will ensure the alignment of the identification data of the patients with the data contained in the National Registry of the patients.
National Resident Population Register (ANPR) A database of national interest and enabling platform of the Ministry of the Interior. The ANPR will take over the registers of the Italian Municipalities, forming a unique reference for Public Administration, Associated Societies and Public Service Managers. It includes all the personal data of the resident population.
App A software application dedicated to mobile devices, such as smartphones or tablets. It differs from traditional applications, both in terms of its support and its conception, characterised by simplification and elimination of excess, in order to achieve lightness, essence and speed, in line with limited hardware resources and with the different usability of mobile devices compared todesktop computers.
Application Programming Interface (API) An interface for application programming, being a series of conventions adopted by software developers to define how a specific function of an application should be referenced. Compared with what is stated in this Plan, the new Interoperability Model (see chap. 5) will define the rules and conventions that public administrations, and other parties that adhere to the PA’s IT System, must adopt to develop services that are enabled for application integration.
API economy An emerging economic outsourcing originated by organisations and individuals providing useful APIs for direct access to their systems and/or processes. Opening APIs allows for quicker innovations and delivers homogeneous data and interoperable interfaces to both internal and external developers, vendors and customers, to improve data access and information exchange. Such organisations can also develop apps to access the API themselves, to create new features, adding value to both themselves and the outside environment. This results in an economy capable of enabling new types of applications with the potential to transform administrative and commercial processes. Specifically for the PA, the opening of information systems to the APIs profoundly changes the way the different administrations interface and cooperate with each other and with third parties.
API first A development and implementation strategy for services and applications that requires the development of an API before implementing an application or web page or application for mobile. In other words, the definition of service delivery channels follows the development of the API logically and chronologically.
Automated files for immigration and asylum Established with Presidential Decree no. 242 of 27-07-2004 of the Ministry of the Interior, automated immigration and asylum archives are also interconnected with the information systems of regions, autonomous provinces and local authorities and connect in the remote network various archives of interest to different CPAs, for example: the computerised archive of the world-wide visa network (Ministry of Foreign Affairs); the Tax Registry (Ministry of Economy and Finance and Tax Agencies); the register of non-EU workers (INPS); the computerised archive of residence permits (Ministry of the Interior - Department of Public Security).
National Archive of Street Numbers of Urban Roads (ANNCSU) A database that meets the need to provide information on streets and street numbers, computerised and encoded, updated and certified by municipalities, throughout the national territory, in order to provide all Public Administration Bodies with a database of reference data. The archive will also be used by Istat as the only toponymic archive of reference for permanent census and the production of territorial statistics.
Backend In IT, this indicates interfaces that have a programme as recipient. A Backend application is a programme with which the user interacts indirectly, usually through a front-end application.
Back office This is the opposite to Front Office and is that part of an organisation that includes all of its own activities that contribute to its operational management: from technical aspects related to production and the exercise of typical functions, to organisation management activities and administrative procedures. In practice, the Back Office is everything the user does not see but which allows the realisation of the services destined for them.
Backlog In IT, a series of operations waiting to be carried out by a computer.
National Database of Public Contracts Established by the CAD (Article 62-bis) by the Authority for the Supervision of Public Contracts for Works, Services and Supplies to reduce the administrative burden from IT obligations and to ensure effectiveness, transparency and control of administrative actions in real time for the allocation of public expenditure on works, services and supplies, also in order in respect of the legality and correctness of the PA and to prevent corruption.
Database of cadastral data Owned by the Inland Revenue Agency, it includes data for certain identification on the territory of the property asset in the context of the transfer of rights and the allocation of the revenue ordinarily obtainable from the property.
Base registry Term used within the European Interoperability Framework to indicate reliable, authentic and official sources of particularly relevant data produced by Public Administrations (e.g., people, roads, buildings, organisations, etc.). This data is the foundation for the construction of public services and the public administrations appointed that have the task of managing it according to clear quality, safety and privacy requirements. Within the Base register there are different National databases, transverse databases and resources (dictionaries, glossaries, ontologies, etc.).
Databases of national interest Article 60 of the CAD defines this as unified information collected and managed digitally by public administrations, homogeneous by type and content and the knowledge which is relevant to the performance of the institutional functions of other public administrations. By way of example, the databases identified are: the National Directory of Territorial Data, the National Register of Resident Population, the National Public Contracts Database, the Criminal Records and the Registry of Companies.
Best practice A set of activities (procedures, behaviours, habits, etc.) that, based on experiences that have proven to be better over time, both for their efficiency (requiring less effort) and for their effectiveness (providing better results) can be taken as a reference and formalised in rules or plans to be systematically reproduced to help achieve the best results in a particular field.
Big data Big data is referred to in the case of a set of data to be stored and/or processed that is so large, and/or with such a wide variety of formats, and/or with such high growth rates that it requires the use of unconventional software (big data technologies) to extrapolate, manage and process information within a reasonable time. Big data technologies are highly scalable: their processing/storage capacity grows in line with the amount of dedicated resources (typically expressed as number of hosts).
Big spenders Considered to be big spenders are those administrations that have a high spend on the total of detected CPAs as well as a high percentage of the Opex component out of the total Capex/Opex and the IT component out of total ICT.
Business continuity This is the set of activities aimed at minimising destructive or otherwise damaging effects as a result of an event that has struck an organisation or part thereof.
Digital Administration Code (CAD) Established with Legislative Decree of 7th March 2005, no. 82 and amended by Legislative Decree 179 of 2016, this is an organic body of provisions governing the use of information technology by the public administration.
Capex Capital Expenditures (expenses for investment).
Criminal records registry Database of national interest, containing the list of civil and criminal records of each citizen. All Italian judicial offices are connected to the Criminal Records Information System (SIC), which is the property of the Ministry of Justice, a centralised database containing all the data of the criminal records and the records of cases pending and the data that refers to the register of administrative penalties for offences and the register of cases pending for administrative offences resulting from crime. It is supplied directly from the inscription and local offices and through interconnection with the so-called source systems of the criminal system (SICP, SIES, SIPPI). It is also interconnected with the databases of other European Criminal Records.
Reuse Catalogue

For the re-use of computer programmes, it is possible for a Public Administration to reuse free programmes or parts thereof developed on behalf and at the expense of another administration, adapting them to its needs.

The Reuse Catalogue is instituted by AgID, with the aim of fostering cooperation between administrations, saving on costs of software purchasing, and inter-operability between PA information systems.

Computer Emergency Response Team (Cert) This is an organisation charged with preventing and coordinating the response to cybernetic events. Several CERTs also provide training and information to users.
The Unified Conference Joint sitting of the State-Regions Conference and the State-City Conference and Local Autonomies established by the Legislative Decree of 28th August 1997, no. 281.
Cloud or cloud computing A model to enable, through the network, the widespread, easy, and assisted access to a shared and configurable set of processing resources (such as networks, servers, memory, applications and services) that can be acquired and released quickly and with minimal management effort or interaction with the service provider.
Private Cloud Typology of cloud installed by the user in its data centre for its exclusive use. The main advantage of a private cloud is that the services are provided by computers located in the user’s domain and, therefore, it has full control over the machines on which the data is stored and the processes performed.
Public cloud Public cloud services are offered by suppliers who make available to their users/customers the calculation and/or storage potential of their data centres.
Hybrid cloud The hybrid cloud is a combination of the public and private model, being a model in which the user has both the resources of its own private cloud and a public cloud.
Steering Committee The Steering Committee for coordinating OT11 operations (strengthening institutional and administrative capacity) and OT2 (Digital Agenda Implementation) has been established at the Department of Public Function to ensure the protection of the strategy and coherence with the processes of reform of the Public Administration.
Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) Plan proposed by the EU in October 2011 (COM (2011) 665) in support of transport, energy and digital infrastructures, within the framework of the 2014-2020 Multi-annual Financial Framework. The objective of the Connecting Europe Facility is to speed up public and private investment in the trans-European transport, telecommunications and energy networks. In particular, the CEF supports projects of common interest aimed at the development and construction of new services and infrastructures, or the modernisation of existing ones, with priority for missing connections in the transport sector. The tool also supports projects with added value at European level and significant benefits to the company that does not receive adequate funding from the market.
Document preservation The retention of documents and computer files, governed by the Prime Ministerial Decree of 3rd December 2013, is the activity of protecting and maintaining archives of documents and data files over time. The storage time, as recalled by Article 43 of the CAD can be “permanent”, being indefinite in the future or, as is often referred, “long-term”, being a sufficiently wide timespan to be affected by technological changes. Its primary goal is to prevent unauthorised loss or destruction of documents and to maintain their features of authenticity, integrity, reliability, readability and availability over time.
Perennial conservation Perennial preservation is a long-term document retention process that involves the renewal of time-based trade-marks (timestamp) every ten years. This process is subject to acts of historical and cultural relevance relating to administrative proceedings concluded more than 40 years ago. The permanent storage of PA’s digital archives is activated at the Central State Archive.
Digital growth The 2014-2020 Digital Growth Strategy is a national strategic plan that tracks the path to pursuing the goals of the Digital Agenda, within the framework of the 2014-2020 Partnership Agreement. Digital Growth has been prepared by the Presidency of the Council, together with the Ministry of Economic Development, the Agency for Digital Italy and the Cohesion Agency and approved by the European Commission.
Data-driven policy Policies driven by data. The opportunities offered by the technologies for Big Data and the diffusion of theIoT make data analysis a useful tool for building increasingly accurate models of reality, with which to set effective policy strategies.
Data application Applications that allow you to effectively view and manipulate a data set.
Data lake Architectural component to save input data for a Big Data system. In a data lake, data is generally stored in its natural format (raw data) coming from different sources of information: consequently, in a data lake there coexists structured data (e.g., XML, JSON), semi-structured data (e.g., CSV, logs), unstructured data (e.g., emails, documents, PDF files) and binary data (e.g., images, audio, video).
Data Retrieval The process of search and retrieve of data from a database through a query. It allows data extrapolation in order to view it and/or use it within an application.
Data warehouse Computer archive containing the data of an organisation, designed to allow easy analysis and useful reports to be made for decision making purposes.
Data set A collection of data, generally relating to the same organisation, which is delivered and managed jointly. Managed by AgID, this represents the national catalogue of public administration data. In relation to the provisions of Article 9 of Legislative Decree no. 36/2006, as amended by Legislative Decree 102/2015, on “Re-use of Public Sector Information”, is also the open source data search tool released by the Public Administrations. The catalogue is powered by two modes: the insertion of descriptive metadata of the data through a web application, the automatic harvesting from data portals of the Public Administrations.
Data Catalogue Vocabulary (DCAT) The RDF Vocabulary that facilitates inter-operability between catalogues of data published on the Web.
DCAT Application profile (DCAT-AP) European specification for description of datasets of the public sector based on the Data Catalogue Dictionary(DCAT), to allow better cross-border and public-sector data research.
Demand pull Also known as market pull, it focuses on the concept that demand determines the direction and size of innovative activity. This approach arises in antithesis with the Technology Push model, based on the idea that research and development functions guide innovations to be subsequently introduced the market.
Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) Composite index drawn up by the European Commission to assess the state of progress of the EU Member States towards a digital economy and society. It aggregates a set of structured indicators around five dimensions: connectivity; human capital; use of the Internet; integration of digital technology; digital public services.
Digital by default PA services are produced directly in digital mode. This follows the need for organisational change of administration through the digitisation of back office processes as well.
Digital Divide This indicates the gap between people with tools of communication, information, digital processing in step with the times, and those that are devoid of it for various reasons. The Digital Divide can be of an infrastructure, economic or cultural type.
Digital First A strategy through which an organisation distributes a service or product directly in digital and online mode, rather than in traditional mode. In a PA context, it implies that services are mainly delivered via digital means. This approach allows two results to be achieved: to promote the dissemination of computer skills to the population; to give impetus to the modernisation of the Public Administration through the re-engineering of its internal processes.
Disaster Recovery The set of technical and organisational measures taken to ensure the organisation’s operation of the data processing centre, the procedures and IT applications of the organisation itself, in alternative sites to the primary/production ones, in the face of events that cause or may cause prolonged unavailability.
Applicative domain The context in which a software application operates, especially with reference to the nature and meaning of the information to be manipulated.
Dual-stack A solution used to handle the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. The dual-stack technique provides for the use of double stack IP, in the stack to be filed. This double stack allows one to interpret both versions of the protocol and, therefore, to deploy the contents of the packet to higher levels without them knowing which IP protocol is used.
IT Duplicate The IT document obtained through the storing, on the same device or on different devices, of the same sequence of binary values of the original document.
e-Certis The IT System of the European Commission that allows for contracting stations to verify documents and certificates submitted by foreign operators and companies to know the documents and certificates required for the submission of applications for public procurement in any country of the Union, in accordance with procurement directives.
E-Government Digitised Public Administration Management System, with the aim of optimising and improving the internal processes of agencies, and offering faster and more innovative services to users.
Early adopter Under this Plan, administrations that experiment with the use of the Services Catalogue ( from April 2017, before the opening of the application to all PAs in 2018.
EGDI (E-Government Development Index) An index that measures the effectiveness of E-Government in providing basic economic and social services to people in five sectors: education, health, work and employment, finance and social welfare. The assessment evaluates the performance of an E-Government of a nation in relation to others and not to an absolute degree. The framework methodology used for collecting and evaluating the analysis data is based on three dimensions: the adequacy of Telecommunication infrastructures, the human capacity to promote ICT, the availability of services and content on-line.
Electronic Identification Authentication & Signature (eIDAS) The regulation of the eIDAS is the EU 910/2014 Digital Identity Regulation, which aims to provide a EU-wide regulatory basis for trustee services and electronic means of identification for member states.
European Interoperability Framework (EIF) A framework defined by the European Commission to promote the provision of public services within the Union. It contains a set of recommendations and definitions for: (i) promoting and supporting the delivery of public services by promoting cross-border and trans-sector inter-operability; (ii) guiding public administrations in providing services to businesses and citizens; (iii) complementing and linking the various national inter-operability frameworks (National Interoperability Frameworks, NIFs) at a European level. It describes how organisations have agreed or should agree to interact with each other, and how standards should be used. It therefore provides the policies and recommendations that form the basis for the selection of standards to be adopted in interaction between organisations.
National Cyber Security Framework (FNCS) This is the content of the Italian Cyber Security Report 2015 of the “CIS Sapienza”, published in February 2016 and implemented with the help of AgID. The purpose of the document is to offer organisations a homogeneous approach to addressing cyber security in order to reduce the risk of cyber threats. The approach of the framework is intimately linked to a risk analysis and not to technological standards.
Front end In IT, this indicates the interfaces that have a user as recipient. A front application is a programme with which the user has direct interaction.
Front office This is the opposite of Back office and represents the set of structures in an organisation that manage end-user interaction. In the case of the PA, the front office is represented by the various channels of service provision (from traditional counters to digital services), by the Information Desk and by the offices that deal with the public.
Fuzz test Automated testing by software that involves inadmissible, unexpected, and random data in a computer programme. The programme is monitored to check that there are no anomalies.
Geo DCAT-AP An extension of the European DCAT-AP profile for the description of geo-spatial data sets and relative services. This provides a RDF syntax of metadata included in the core set of the ISO 19115:2003 standard and that defined by European Regulation 1285/2008 under the INSPIRE Directive. The profile is intended to provide useful tools for exchanging descriptions of territorial data and services between data portals that are not strictly geographic using a common exchange format.
Public service managers Companies and bodies organised in a corporate form that manage public services.
Grand Coalition for Digital Jobs An initiative intended to grow exponentially the Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) sector, a sector that plays a fundamental role in the growth of productivity and living standards but is still experiencing difficulties in development also due to the lack of digital skills.
Hash one way The hash is a cryptographic function, an algorithm that transforms data of an arbitrary length into a fixed-size binary string. The algorithms used in this regard are unidirectional (one-way) and therefore difficult to invert, so that this string cannot be traced back to the message from which it was generated. The cryptographic functions of hash are widely used in IT security environments where sensitive data such as digital signatures, message authentication, and personal user credentials are encrypted in web applications.
Identity Provider Managers of digital identity accredited pursuant to Article 4 of the Prime Ministerial Decree of 24th October 2014. Legal persons accredited to the SPID who, as public service providers, upon sure identification of the user, assigns, makes available and manages the attributes used by the same user in order to identify himself/herself. They also provide the services needed to manage the attribution of the digital identity of users, the distribution and inter-operability of access credentials, the confidentiality of managed information, and the computer authentication of users.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Cloud service model. The faculty provided to the consumer is in order to acquire processing, memory, network and other key computing resources, including operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, but controls the operating systems, memory, applications and possibly - to a limited extent - some network components (e.g., firewalls).
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) A set of methods and technologies related to the transmission, reception and processing of information. In general, it is also used to describe the area of technological and industrial activity related to information communication and processing.
Index of Public Administration (IPA) The database managed by AgID represents the master data catalogue of the Public Administrations. It includes all data on the articulation of the offices, the email and certified e-mail addresses of each office together with other data such as the managers, office location addresses, and so on. The databases also include the office code of the recipient PA of an electronic invoice by which to enable functionality offered by the national platform for electronic invoicing.
National index of certified e-mail address of professionals and businesses (INI-PEC) Managed by the Ministry of Economic Development, the catalogue contains all the certified e-mail addresses of professionals and companies present on Italian territory.
Critical infrastructures A set of infrastructures on the continuous and coordinated operation on which depends on the development, safety and quality of life in industrialised countries. The destruction, interruption or even partial or momentary unavailability of the ICs has the effect of significantly weakening the efficiency and normal functioning of a country, but also the security and the economic, financial and social system, including the equipment of the central and local public administration. By way of example, there are physical infrastructures for the electrical and energy system, the various communication networks, the networks and infrastructure for transporting people and goods (air, sea, rail and road), the health system, economic-financial circuits, the networks supporting the Government, local and regional authorities and emergency management.

In the IT field, the ability of different and autonomous systems to

cooperate and exchange information automatically, based on commonly shared rules.

Italian Core Vocabularies Databases containing vocabularies and recurring data templates in the Public Administration. The realisation of the Italian Core Vocabularies will enable the harmonisation and standardisation of codes and nomenclatures in the PA data bases.
Lock-in This occurs when an agent or set of agents is trapped within a choice or economic balance from which it is difficult to get out, even if potentially more efficient alternatives are available. For businesses and organisations, one talks about technological lock-in in the presence of an investment in a technology that is inferior to others that are available, but proves expensive to get out of the investment. The cause of the difficulty may lie in the presence of fixed investment costs that would be lost, or of network outsourcing that is created between a group of companies or organisations using the same technology, making the switch to another standard very complex.
Silo logic In IT, the term ‘silo’ means an isolated component of an IT system that does not share data, information, and/or processes with other components of the system.
Machine Learning In Italian: apprendimento automatico (automatic learning). Scientific discipline related to the Artificial Intelligence area, with algorithms and methodologies useful for training programmes capable of automatically responding to specific problems.
Evolutionary Maintenance (MEV) Evolutionary Maintenance (of a website, an app or software) includes operations aimed at improving the product through architectural evolution, the introduction of new features, modification of existing ones, integration with other features/services also in relation to non-functional aspects such as usability, performance, accessibility, and even in application cooperation with third party systems.
Time stamp A timestamp is a sequence of characters that represent a date and/or time to ascertain the actual occurrence of a certain event.
PA Electronics Market (MePA) A digital market in which authorised administrations can purchase goods and services offered by suppliers authorised to submit their catalogues to the system for values below the Community threshold. Consip defines the types of goods and services and the general terms and conditions of supply, specifies the licensing of suppliers and publishes and updates the catalogues.
Metadata compilation Assigning descriptive data to information through standard language that is non-proprietary, intelligible to all computer systems.
Metadata This is information describing a set of data. In ICT, metadata describes the data properties in a structural manner. Metadata can also be used to allow functional use of documents within a given IT system. Indexing with a homogeneous metadata schema allows interoperability between different types of resources.
Agile methodology A set of software development methods that are based on a less structured approach to traditional means, with the aim of developing functional software in a short time. Features are added through subsequent cycles (iterations), passing through demo releases and undergoing interaction with the client. At the end of each iteration, the software is in operation and has new features compared to the previous iteration. The iterations are followed through to the final completion of the product.
Micro-services Architectural model for the realisation of software applications in which application logic is implemented, mainly through the aggregation of functionality exposed by blandly coupled services.
Minimum Viable Product (MVP) In the development of a product or service, this indicates the minimum stage of development for which the product can be tested or introduced on the market.
Mobile First An approach that determines the delivery of a digital service from the mobile channel (app and/or website), then extends the product via a website suitable for desktop navigation.
Multi-layer architecture Software architecture typically adopted in the implementation of client-server applications, where presentation, application processing, and data management logics are decoupled to render the solution more flexible and increase the reusability of the software developed.
Technological neutrality The principle introduced into European legislation by the 2002 telecommunications package (2002/21/EC, 2002/20/EC, 2002/19/EC, 2002/22/EC, 2002/58/EC). This principle provides for: (i) non-discrimination between particular technologies, (ii) non-imposition of the use of a particular technology compared to others, and (iii) the possibility of taking reasonable measures to promote certain services regardless of the technology used.
Once only principle A principle under which public administrations should avoid asking citizens and businesses information already provided. Public administrations then share such data between their offices, so they do not impose additional burdens on citizens and companies. At a European level, the once only principle is the key element of the Administrative Burden Reduction (ABR) priority, crucial in achieving the goal of an efficient and effective government, set as a priority in the EU E-Government Action Plan 2016 - 2020 (COM (2016) 179).
Ontology This is a model of formal representation of reality and knowledge. In IT, this is the explicit formal description of the concepts of a domain in the form of a set of objects and relationships, a data structure that allows the entities and their relationships in a certain domain of knowledge to be described.
OpenPEPPOL Non-profit Association founded on 1st September 2012 after the completion of the Pan-European Public Procurement Online (PEPPOL) project which has seen the implementation of the PEPPOL in several European countries, to solve interoperability problems for electronic contracts.
Open Government Partnership An international initiative aimed at achieving concrete commitments from Governments in terms of promoting transparency, supporting civic participation, combating corruption and the diffusion - both inside and outside public administrations - of new technologies in support of innovation.
Opex Operating Expenditures (Current Expenditure).
Thematic objective The Thematic Objectives (OTs) are the common European Union-wide ambitions that the Cohesion Policy has established to sustain growth for the 2014-2020 period.
Thematic Objective 11 (OT11) A thematic objective aimed at strengthening institutional capacity and promoting efficient public administration.
Thematic Objective 2 (OT2) A thematic objective aimed at improving access to information and communication technologies, as well as the employment and quality of the information.
Paas - Platform as a Service Cloud service model. The faculty provided to the consumer is to be distributed on the cloud infrastructure applications created by itself or acquired from third parties, using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the vendor. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, including the network, server, operating systems and memory, but has control over applications and possibly over the configurations of the environment that hosts them.
Pan-European Public Procurement On-Line An initiative developed from 2008 through to August 2012 under the European Innovation and Competitiveness Programme (CIP) with the aim of defining solutions that allow long-term EU economic operators to participate without encountering technological barriers to the electronic tendering procedure of a PA in another Member State, by submitting attestations for participation and tenders in catalogue form, receiving orders and issuing invoices, all in electronic format and with the possibility of signing documents electronically.
Penetration Test In IT, the Penetration Test is the operational evaluation process of the security of a system or network that simulates an attack by a malicious user.
National strategic hub

A set of physical infrastructures (Data Centres, Connectivity) - both owned by Public Administrations, and managed but not owned by Public Administrations (vendors acquired from the market), made available by the administrations, without any constraints in terms of location in the national territory - capable of providing:

optimised infrastructure services (e.g., Cloud, hosting, support, maintenance, processing capacity, supercomputing);

connectivity services;

disaster recovery and business continuity services;

IT security management services.

Conservation Hub A data centre specialising in the preservation of digital PA documents by means of an electronic storage system that guarantees authenticity, integrity, reliability, readability and availability of computer documents, as foreseen by the CAD (Article 44).
Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP) Pre-commercial contracts aimed at promoting innovation to ensure sustainable and high-quality public services in Europe. The COM (2007) 799 of the CE defines the characteristics in these terms: the field of application is limited to R&D services; the sharing of risks and benefits applies (the public purchaser does not reserve for its exclusive use the results of R&D activities); they are competitive tenders aimed at avoiding state aid. Article 19 of Legislative Decree 179/2012, identifies the AgID as a pre-commercial procurement bureau for the regions and other relevant administrations.
Business Registry A database of national interest owned by the Chambers of Commerce with which all entrepreneurs must enrol. It contains information on the constitution, financial transactions and other acts of companies operating in the national territory.
National Repertoire of Territorial Data A database managed by AgID, which represents the national catalogue of reference for geo-spatial data of public administrations. The catalogue should be used to document the geographical or territorial data that the administrations hold, using as the common standard the national profile of INSPIRE/RNDT metadata, inter-operable with the profile defined in the context of the implementation of the INSPIRE Directive, following the rules defined at the time (decree of 10 November 2011 Official Gazette No. 48 of 27/02/2012 Ordinary Supplement no. 37). In 2016, AgID will undertake to align the information of the repertoire with the national data catalogue (see below), using the GeoDCAT-AP profile defined at a European level and providing the appropriate technical guidance.
Re-hosting The means to migrate the applicative field. Technically, it is the porting of one or more legacy applications, up to the entire system, towards open and standard environments (Microsoft, Unix, Linux) without any source code conversions or rewrites and, above all, without any mission critical applications undergoing functional changes.
Resource Description Framework (RDF) A language that allows data and metadata to be represented through the definition of assertions, called triplets, according to the “subject”, “property” and “object” schemes. It is the markup language on which the Semantic web is based.
Representational State Transfer (REST) A type of software architecture for distributed hypertext systems such as the World Wide Web. Instead of using the typical mechanisms of web services (e.g., SOAP) for the connection between hosts, the HTTP protocol is used to handle requests and make calls between two points.
RESTful (applications) Applications based on REST, that use HTTP requests to send data (create and/or update), query, modify and delete data. In other words, RESTful applications use HTTP for all four CRUD operations (Create/Read/Update/Delete).
Sandbox In the IT field, this identifies an environment in which testing and experimentation can be performed on applicative solutions.
Statistical confidentiality Regulated by Article 9 of Legislative Decree no. 322 of 6th September 1989, statistical confidentiality is part of the broader protection of personal data provided by the Code on the Protection of Personal Data (Legislative Decree 196/03) and, in particular, by Annex A3, entitled “Code of ethics for the processing of personal data for statistical purposes in the Sistan domain”. It is the instrument through which the right to privacy is strictly protected for the citizens about whom the data is collected. Such data is therefore used solely for statistical purposes and may only be disclosed in aggregate form and in such a way that it is not possible to identify the person to whom the information relates.
Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) An architectural model for the design of distributed software based on the concept of service, where service is defined as a software module that exposes an interface (or contract) used to describe the features offered.
Back office services Concerning the Plan, the digital services used by the Public Administration in order to carry out its institutional tasks and which do not provide for contact with the end user (citizens and businesses).
System Management Services Management, maintenance and specialist support services for HW and SW infrastructures, being the complex of services and activities intended to ensure the full operation of technological infrastructures, the availability and the performance of the applications installed on them and the integrity of the related data.
Qualified trustee services The term ‘trustee service’ indicates a set of electronic services, generally provided against payment. In the eIDAS, regulation trustee services are defined as follows: services for the creation, verification and validation of electronic signatures, electronic seals, electronic timeframe validations, certified electronic delivery services; certificates relating to such services; creation, verification and validation of website authentication certificates; signature keeping services; seals or electronic certificates relating to such services. Qualified trustee services are subject to the supervision of specific national government bodies, in Italy being the AgID.
Front office services In terms of the Plan, they are the digital services that the Public Administration delivers to its users.
Public services Any activity that is carried out in the production of goods or services that meet the needs of general utility, not only in economic terms but also in terms of social promotion, provided that it meets the needs of general utility or is intended for it being provided to meet collective interests. The database overseen by AgID currently being implemented contains the main metadata that documents the public services offered to citizens, professionals and businesses by public administrations.
Information Security Management System (SGSI) A tool that allows for the continuous and systematic control of the processes that concern the security of the entire corporate information patrimony, not just from an IT point of view (electronic or paper media used to store documents and data) but above all from a management and organisational point of view by defining roles, responsibilities and formal procedures for the operation of the company itself.
In-house companies Public companies constituted in a corporate form, typically joint stock companies, whose capital is held wholly or in part, directly or indirectly, by a public body entrusting them with instrumental or production activities.
Subsidiaries Companies that have one or more Public Administration among their shareholders.
Software as a Service (SaaS) Cloud service model. The facility provided to the consumer is that of using the supplier’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. The applications are accessible from different devices through a lightweight interface (thin client), such as an email application on a browser, or programmes with a dedicated interface. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including the network, server, operating systems, memory, or even the capabilities of individual applications, with the possible exception of limited configurations thereto assigned (parameter assignment).
Public Connectivity System (SPC) A set of technological infrastructures and technical rules that aim to “federate” ICT infrastructures of Public Administrations in order to implement integrated services through shared rules and services. This integration saves costs and time, and provides end-user-centred services, avoiding continuous requests from administrations, as well as duplication of information and controls.
Stress testing In computing, and in reference to client-server architectures, a test type that involves an incremental increase in the number and/or frequency of service requests sent to the server in order to reach the breaking point. Using stress testing, one determines the maximum “capacity” of the server and can check the effects of an overload.
Switch off The abolition, in the relationship between PA and citizen, of every physical and paper interaction. The dematerialisation of the relationships with the PA is the main tool for simplifying administrative acts, reducing costs, efficiency and administrative effectiveness, and improving the quality of services delivered.
Troubleshooting A logical and systematic search process for the causes of a problem on a product or process.
Virtualisation The execution method of applications where they are installed on a representation (hence the term virtual) of a real computer, obtained via software and known as a “virtual machine”. The “virtual machines” in turn, run (are executed) above a level of software (usually called “hypervisor”) that simulates the availability of hardware infrastructure for all virtual machines.
Web Oriented Architecture A service-oriented architecture that uses protocols and typical web mechanisms. It can be briefly described by the formula: WOA = SOA + WWW + REST